Atlantis Continent -The Minoan Connection

Atlantis Continent-The Minoan Connection
Frost suggested that instead of being west of the Pillars of Hercules, Atlantis continent was east. He also thought that the catastrophic end of the island had come not 9000 years before Plato's time, but only 900. If this was true, the land of Atlantis continent might already be a well-known place even in Plato's time: the island of Crete.
Are Pyramids a Clue?
Lewis Spence, a Scottish writer, published several books on Atlantis in the early 20th century. Spence wondered if the creation of pyramids in diverse areas such as South America and Egypt indicated that these places had all been colonies of the Atlantis Continent and if the Atlantians were the original pyramid makers. While the idea is interesting, most historians today believe the trend toward building pyramids occurred independently in different locations.
Crete is now a part of modern Greece and lies just south of Athens across part of the Mediterranean Sea. The Minoans dominated the eastern Mediterranean with a powerful navy and probably extracted tribute from other surrounding nations. Archaeological excavations have shown that Minoan Crete was probably one of the most sophisticated cultures of its time. It had splendid architecture and art. A code of laws gave women equal legal status to men. Agriculture was highly developed and an extensive irrigation system existed.
Then, seemingly in a blink of an eye, the Minoan Civilization disappeared. Geological studies have shown that on an island we now know as Santorinas, located just ten miles to the north of Crete, a disaster occurred that was very capable of toppling the Minoan state.
Santorinas today is a lush Mediterranean paradise consisting of several islands in a ring shape. To understand the effect of such an explosion, scientists have compared it with the most powerful volcanic explosion in historic times. This occurred on the Island of Krakatoa in 1883. There a giant wave, or tsunami, 120 feet high raced across the sea and hit neighboring islands, killing 36,000 people. The explosion at Santorinas was four times as powerful as Krakatoa.
The tsunami that hit Crete must have traveled inland for over half a mile, destroying any coastal towns or cities. Overnight the powerful Minoan Empire was crushed and Crete changed to a political backwater. One can hardly imagine a catastrophe more like Plato's description of Atlantis' fate than the destruction of Crete.
Many of the details of the Atlantis continent story fit with what is now known about Crete. Women had a relatively high political status, both cultures were peaceful, and both enjoyed the unusual sport of ritualistic bullfighting (where an unarmed man wrestled and jumped over a bull).
If the fall of the Minoans is the story of Atlantis, how did Plato get the location and time wrong? Not everyone accepts the Minoan Crete theory of the story of Atlantis, but until a convincing case can be made for some other place, it, perhaps, remains science's best guess.
Atlantis Continent

Ancient Texts and Writing on Atlantis

Ancient Texts and Writing on Atlantis
In Meso- and South-America, Aztecs and Mayans are said to have mentioned Atlantis in "Chilam Balam", "Dresden Codex", "Popul Vuh", "Codex Cortesianus", and "Troano Manuscript". Then the sky would fall, it would fall down upon the earth, when the four gods, the four Bacabs, were set up, who brought about the destruction of the world." According to the former, the fourth of these worlds, or "Suns," was destroyed by a great flood of water (Seler 1923, p. 40).
The Mayan "Popol Vuh" ("The Collection of Written Leaves") says: "Over a universe wrapped in the gloom of a dense and primeval night passed the god Hurakan, the mighty wind. He called out "earth," and the solid land appeared. The chief gods took counsel; they were Hurakan, Gucumatz, the serpent covered with green feathers, and Xpiyacoc and Xmucane, the mother and father gods. To supply the deficiency the divine beings resolved to create mannikins carved out of wood. But these soon incurred the displeasure of the gods, who, irritated by their lack of reverence, resolved to destroy them. Then by the will of Hurakan, the Heart of Heaven, the waters were swollen, and a great flood came upon the mannikins of wood. There was heard a great noise above their heads, as if produced by fire. Then were men seen running, pushing each other, filled with despair; they wished to climb upon their houses, and the houses, tumbling down, fell to the ground; they wished to climb upon the trees, and the trees shook them off; they wished to enter into the grottoes (eaves), and the grottoes closed themselves before them. . . Water and fire contributed to the universal ruin at the time of the last great cataclysm which preceded the fourth creation."
Also the "Popol Vuh", speaking of the first home of the Guatemalan race, says that "black and white men together" lived in this happy land "in great peace," speaking "one language."In "The Myths of Mexico and Peru" (1913), Lewis Spence says: "Ere the earth was quite recovered from the wrathful flood which had descended upon it there lived a being orgulous and full of pride, called Vukub-Cakix (Seventimes-the-colour-of-fire-the Kiche name for the great macaw bird). In short, it is evident that he was a sun-and-moon god of prehistoric times. He boasted dreadfully, and his conduct so irritated the other gods that they resolved upon his destruction. His two sons, Zipacna and Cabrakan (Cockspur or Earth-heaper, and Earthquake), were earthquake-gods of the type of the Jotuns of Scandinavian myth or the Titans of Greek legend. These also were prideful and arrogant, and to cause their downfall the gods despatched the heavenly twins Hun-Apu and Xbalanque to earth, with instructions to chastise the trio.
The Aztec book, "Codex Chimalpopoca", translated by Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, says:
"This is the sun called Nahui-atl, '4 water.' Now the water was tranquil for forty years, plus twelve, and men lived for the third and fourth times. Even the mountains sunk into the water, and the water remained tranquil for fifty-two springs."
In Europe, Holland, the Frysian book - also one of the oldest books ever found - "Oera Linda Book". Qoute: "During the whole summer, the sun hid itself behind the clouds, as if unwilling to shine upon earth. In the middle of quietude, the earth began to quake as if it was dying. The mountains opened up to vomit forth fire and flames. Some of them sunk under the earth while in other places moutains rose out of plains. Many people were swallowed up by the earth, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the waters."
"Younger Edda" (also known as "Prose Edda" or "Snorri's Edda") is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains mythological stories. According to "Gylfaginning", from "The Prose Edda" of Snorri Sturlson, translated by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur in 1916, "King Gylfi ruled the land that men now call Sweden".
"King Gylfi was a wise man and skilled in magic; he was much troubled that the Æsir-people were so cunning that all things went according to their will. There dwelt the gods and their kindred; and many tidings and tales of it have come to pass both on earth and aloft."
In the Introduction of the book, one can read: "The beginning of the book is a summary of the Biblical story of the Creation and Deluge, followed by a rationalized account of the rise of the ancient pagan faith, according to which the old gods appear, not as deities, but as men."
In Greece, I will mention Plato, Plutarch, and Herodotus for now, even though Diodorus, Aristotle, Marcellus, Proclus, Crantor, Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus have mentioned Atlantis in a way or another. We should also mention Solon, the great law-giver of Athens 600 years before the Christian era. In his book, "The Life of Solon", Plutarch (45 - 120 AD) says:
Now Solon, having begun the great work in verse, the history or fable of the Atlantic Island, which he had learned from the wise men in Sais, and thought convenient for the Athenians to know, abandoned it; not, as Plato says, by reason of want or time, but because of his age, and being discouraged at the greatness of the task; for that he had leisure enough, such verses testify, as
Plato, willing to improve the story of the Atlantic Island, as if it were a fair estate that wanted an heir and came with some title to him, formed, indeed, stately entrances, noble enclosures, large courts, such as never yet introduced any story, fable, or poetic fiction; but beginning it late, ended his life before his work."
Plato (427 - 347 BC) begins his book:
"Critias. Plato continues:
You can read the full work of Plato's "Dialogues" here.
As one deducts, Atlantis was sunk by the will of Gods, through flood(s) and earthquake(s). Ignatius Donnelly, in his book, "Atlantis, the Antediluvian World" (1884), mentions an old sacred book of Babylon. "Cronos (Ea) appeared to him in his sleep, and announced that on the fifteenth of the month of Daisios (the Assyrian month Sivan--a little before the summer solstice) all men should perish by a flood. The same story appears in Mesopotamia.
"There was a time when Enlil, the most powerful of the Gods, was displeased with mankind and decided to send a flood that no living being could survive. But the verdict seemed to harsh to Ea, a fellow-god, who forewarned his favorite mortal, Utnapishtin, in a dream. (according to "Cradle of Civilization", Time Life Books) The story of the flood exists in all Near Eastern Cultures, as for Hebrews, they are mentioned as "Hibru" existing among other populations before they have formed their own state.
Conclusion: Since all these old civilizations mentioned Atlantis in a form or another, or the destruction of an Atlantis-like island and a big flood, it's hard to imagine that they've all been lying or re-telling a story told to them. People in those times were pretty interested in their stories and tradition was everything. The survivors of the destruction scattered and landed on the closest areas from the sunk island. II. Is Atlantis Lost Indeed?
Herodotus, in his "History", Vol.1, has a few passages about "Atlantis".
"184. From the Garmantians at a distance again of ten days' journey there is another hill of salt and spring of water, and men dwell round it called Atarantians, who alone of all men about whom we know are nameless; for while all taken together have the name Atarantians, each separate man of them has no name given to him. Usually Herodotus, when referring to the countries or cities, 'outside the Pillars of Heracles' usually talks about the western coasts of Africa and Europe that open to the Atlantic Ocean. Even though he was Roman, he spoke Greek so perfectly that he was called 'honey-tongued'. In his work, Varia Historia (Various History), he talks also about natural wonders and strange local customs. "If one believes Theopompus, Midas, king de the Phrygians, discussed one day with Silene (Silene was sun of a nymph, and for this reason, though it was by his birth of an order lower than the gods, as them, nevertheless, he was immortal, and extremely above the condition of the men). After having discussed various things, Silene called to Midas:
It produces very large animals and men of a size twice higher, which are not those of our climates: as their life it is not limited to the same space of time as ours; they live twice longer. All die in the war, not by iron (iron cannot do anything to them), but struck by stone blows or blows of stick. What Silene added is much more astonishing still: 'In this country, he says, the men that one distinguishes by the name of Meropes, are Masters of several large cities: on the borders of the territory which they live in is a place called Anoste (without return), which resembles a pit, and is neither enlightened, nor dark; the air which forms its atmosphere, is mixed with an obscure red. Two rivers run in the surroundings; the river Pleasure, and the river Sorrow, thus they are named: their edges are covered with trees, the height of a large plane tree. Maps
The first map is Benincasa map (1482), one of the maps studied by Columbus when he set sail for the Indies. At the map's origin seemed to have been a couple of old maps. Right below, Ptolemy's map, published in Strasbourg in 1513. Below you have Athanasius Kircher's map (1669). Kircher was a Jesuit German priest, who lived between 1602-1680. He published "Mundus Subterraneus", a book containing a map of Atlantis according to ancient Egyptian maps. Some claim that Kircher's island looks like the Antarctica on Piri Reis' map, and like nowadays Antarctica without the ice. The inscriptions on the continents say: "America, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantis, Africa, Spain". In the upper corner: "Site of Atlantis, now beneath the sea, according to the beliefs of the Egyptians and the description of Plato".
Being based on Egyptian maps, in Kircher's map north becomes south. The question being asked by the Atlantis believers is if it is more likely to look for Atlantis on an island that moved thousands of kilometers south to reach Antarctica's position now and mostly ignore Plato's story, or to search for it in the Azores, where the tops of the volcanoes are still on land.

The Atlantis We Are Looking For

The Atlantis We Are Looking For
When one mentions the lost continent of Atlantis, one thinks of Plato's "Dialogues".
However, Plato's work was not the only one to point to a 'lost continent'. There are legends of other old civilizations that mention lost worlds which disappeared into the waters, as a result of volcanic eruptions, floods, and earthquakes. Today people fight over the existence of Atlantis continent, but they all take into account one story, that is Plato's. While we do expose the theories and the ongoing research on this sunk land, we try to bind together everything we have to create The Atlantis, the base for "Dialogues", the base for Kircher's and Piri Reis's map, the course of the ancient legends. The result might not be called "Atlantis", but a variation of it. There are so many researchers that claim to have discovered "the lost continent", that any new found land can be a possible Atlantis. Some even claim that Atlantis has already been found in the Aegean Sea, on the Island of Santorini. Maybe Atlantis is some kind of faerie tale, but there must be something lost out there, even if its name is not Atlantis, even if it is not in the Atlantic Ocean.
What is Atlantis after all?
The old Greek scholars cast a completely different light on the story. After years and years of believing just because funny evidence claims the existence of Plato's Atlantis, I reached a point where I ask myself: But did it really exist, as Plato said?
I pointed my finger to the Azores, I pointed it to Santorini, and now I am pointing to nothing, because I don't know what to say. I might as well reach the conclusion that Atlantis continent is, after all, Plato's story, based on some real events, but adapted.

Atlantis: Where is the Lost Continent?

Atlantis: Where is the Lost Continent?
The legend of the lost civilization of Atlantis comes to us primarily from an account recorded by Plato, the great Greek philosopher and author, around 370 B.C.E. He described it as a beautiful continent-sized island that existed somewhere to the west of the Mediterranean, by most interpretations. It was a peaceful land, prosperous from its flourishing commerce, highly advanced in knowledge and technology, and powerful in its governmental influence. In just one dreadful day and night, Plato tells us, Atlantis was completely destroyed by catastrophic flooding and disappeared beneath the sea.
Plato's description of the exact location of Atlantis continent is vague at best, giving us only its general direction. People have devoted their lives to studying, researching and hunting for Atlantis. A lucrative cottage industry has grown around the legend, producing countless books, articles, websites and movies - all speculating on the true fate of the doomed land.
Did Atlantis continent really exist? Not surprisingly, there are many theories as to the precise location of Atlantis. Here are some of the more popular theories, plus the latest information on a recent remarkable discovery that just might shed light on the legend of Atlantis.
Many historians and mainstream scholars consider the story of Atlantis just that - a story. This point of view is explained in an article entitled "Atlantis, Again" on N.S. Gill's Ancient/Classical History section of "Given Plato's concern for good government and an ideal image of Athens of old," writes the article's author, Aulus, "it is very clear that this is a parable regarding the need for virtuous government and rulers. Of the few other ancient mentions of Atlantis, all are but commentaries on Plato's tale... Unfortunately, that's all Atlantis ever was, a tale of utopia."
The West Indies or Bahamas
The Bahamas is an independent state in the long string of beautiful islands known as the West Indies just east of Florida. This area is favored by many as the last remnants of Atlantis primarily due to a 1932 "reading" by Edgar Cayce, the famous "Sleeping Prophet." Although skeptics claim that the geometric, adjoined stone slabs are completely natural formations, believers suspect that the stones were once part of a great Atlantean roadway or temple.
Atlantis and the Bermuda Triangle Crystal relates one incredible story about a discovery made by Dr. Ray Brown in 1970 while scuba diving near the Bari Islands in the Bahamas. Brown claims that he came upon a pyramid-like structure with a smooth, mirror-like stone finish. Brown says he took the crystal, which allegedly has strange, mystical powers. "People have felt breezes or winds blowing close to it," the article says. "Both cold and warm layers surround it at various distances. Other witnesses have observed phantom lights, heard voices or felt strange tingling sensations surrounding it."
Atlantis Continent

Atlantis Continent Location, Location, Location

Atlantis Continent Location, Location, Location

In 1882 a man named Ignatius Donnelly published a book titled Atlantis, the Antediluvian World. Donnelly, an American politician, had come to the belief that Plato's story represented actual historical fact. He located Atlantis continent in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, suggesting the Azores Islands represented what remained of the highest mountain peaks. Donnelly said he had studied zoology and geology and had come to the conclusion that civilization itself had begun with the Atlantians and had spread out throughout the world as the Atlantians established colonies in places like ancient Egypt and Peru. Donnelly's book became a world-wide best seller, but researchers could not take Donnelly's theories seriously as he offered no proof for his ideas.

Modern scientific surveys of the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean shows it is covered with a blanket of sediment that must have taken millions of years to accumulate. There is no sign of a sunken island continent.

People have made cases for places as diverse as Switzerland, in the middle of Europe, and New Zealand, in the Pacific Ocean. The explorer, Percy Fawcett, thought that it might be located in Brazil. Later, Spyridon Marinatos, an archaeologist, and A.G. Galanopoulos, a seismologist, added evidence to Frost's ideas on Atlantis Continent location..

Atlantis Continent..


Plato's Atlantis

Plato's Atlantis

The story of the lost continent of Atlantis starts in 355 B.C. with the Greek philosopher Plato. Plato had planned to write a trilogy of books discussing the nature of man, the creation of the world, and the story of Atlantis, as well as other subjects. Only the first book was ever completed. The second book was abandoned part way through, and the final book was never even started.

Plato used dialogues to express his ideas. In this type of writing, the author's thoughts are explored in a series of arguments and debates between various characters in the story. In Plato's book, Timaeus, a character named Kritias tells an account of Atlantis continent that has been in his family for generations. According to the character, the story was originally told to his ancestor, Solon, by a priest during Solon's visit to Egypt.

The nation there had been established by Poseidon, the God of the Sea. Poseidon fathered five sets of twins on the island. The firstborn, Atlas, had the continent and the surrounding ocean named for him. Poseidon divided the land into ten sections, each to be ruled by a son, or his heirs.

The capital city of Atlantis was a marvel of architecture and engineering. The city was composed of a series of concentric walls and canals. At the very center was a hill, and on top of the hill a temple to Poseidon. About 9000 years before the time of Plato, after the people of Atlantis continent corrupt and greedy, the gods decided to destroy them. A violent earthquake shook the land, giant waves rolled over the shores, and the island sank into the sea, never to be seen again.

So, is the story of Atlantis just a fable used by Plato to make a point? Well, at numerous points in the dialogues, Plato's characters refer to the story of Atlantis as "genuine history" and it being within "the realm of fact." On the other hand according to the writings of the historian Strabo, Plato's student Aristotle remarked that Atlantis was simply created by Plato to illustrate a point. Unfortunately, Aristotle's writings on this subject, which might have cleared the mystery up, have been lost eons ago.

Atlantis Continent


Atlantis Continent Location hypotheses

Atlantis Continent Location hypotheses

Since Donnelly's day, there have been dozens of locations proposed for Atlantis, to the point where the name has become a generic concept, divorced from the specifics of Plato's account. Many of the proposed sites share some of the characteristics of the Atlantis story (water, catastrophic end, relevant time period), but none has been demonstrated to be a true historical Atlantis.

In or near the Mediterranean Sea

Satellite image of the islands of Santorini. This location is one of many sites purported to have been the location of Atlantis Continent.

Most of the historically proposed locations are in or near the Mediterranean Sea: islands such as Sardinia, Crete and Santorini, Sicily, Cyprus, and Malta; land-based cities or states such as Troy, Tartessos, and Tantalus (in the province of Manisa), Turkey; Israel-Sinai or Canaan;[citation needed] and northwestern Africa. The Thera eruption, dated to the 17th or 16th century BC, caused a large tsunami that experts hypothesize devastated the Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete, further leading some to believe that this may have been the catastrophe that inspired the story. A. G. Galanopoulos argued that the time scale has been distorted by an error in translation, probably from Egyptian into Greek, which produced "thousands" instead of "hundreds"; this same error would rescale Plato's Kingdom of Atlantis to the size of Crete, while leaving the city the size of the crater on Thera; 900 years before Solon would be the 15th century BC. In the area of the Black Sea the following locations have been proposed: Bosporus and Ancomah (a legendary place near Trabzon). The Sea of Azov was proposed in 2003.

In the Atlantic Ocean

The location of Atlantis Continent in the Atlantic Ocean has certain appeal given the closely related names. Popular culture often places Atlantis there, perpetuating the original Platonic setting. Several hypotheses place the sunken island in northern Europe, including Doggerland in the North Sea, and Sweden (by Olof Rudbeck in Atland, 1672–1702). Some have proposed the Celtic Shelf and Andalusia as possible locations, and that there is a link to Ireland. The Canary Islands have also been identified as a possible location, west of the Straits of Gibraltar but in proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Various islands or island groups in the Atlantic were also identified as possible locations, notably the Azores. However detailed geological studies of the Canary Islands, the Azores, and the ocean bottom surrounding them found a complete lack of any evidence for the catastrophic subsidence of these islands at any time during their existence and a complete lack of any evidence that the ocean bottom surrounding them was ever dry land at any time in the past. The submerged island of Spartel near the Strait of Gibraltar has also been suggested.

Other locations

Caribbean locations such as Batabano Bay[42] south of Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Bermuda Triangle have been proposed as sites of Atlantis Continent.