ATLANTIS CONTINENT VIDEO

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ATLANTIS FORGOTTEN




ATLANTIS FORGOTTEN

PLATO’S ATLANTIS

Atlantis was destroyed around 9650 BC, according to Plato via Solon via the Priests of Sais. Plato is the key source, who recorded the tale in two of his books (Timaeus and Critias) told to him by his grandfather Solon.

Solon had travelled to Egypt circa 560 BC and learned the tale from a group of Egyptian Priests at Sais, which they obtained from ancient tablets and writings on columns within Egypt.
"In those far-away days that Ocean could be navigated, as there was an island outside the channel which your countrymen tell me you call the 'pillars of Heracles'. This island was larger than Libya and Asia together, and from it seafarers, in those times, could make their way to the others, and thence to the whole opposite continent, which encircles the true outer Ocean.

(The waters within the channel just mentioned are manifestly a basin with a narrow entrance; what lies beyond it is the real Ocean, and it is land enclosing that Ocean which should rightly be called a Continent.)"
Plato described Atlantis as being ruled by ten kings before its demise.

In Egyptian mythology states there was originally 10 god-kings, who ruled in a foreign country. They were called Auriteans, but the actual pronunciation is unsure because hieroglyphs only approximate real sounds.

The Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon (1193 BC) calls the same kings "Aleteans". Note this is 600 years before Plato was even born.

These same god-kings could be compared to various gods in Greek mythology.

Ancient texts (there are numerous versions of them in Egypt, Greece and Mesopotamia) refer to the 10 god-kings, and also list their replacements, which occurred at approximately 9850 BC. Some of the Egyptian texts also had maps of Atlantis, including its round capital city.

Athanasius Kircher (Jesuit priest, 1601-1680)’s 1665 map is based upon an older Egyptian version of the map, but also includes parts of North America in order to provide a better idea of the location. Various other reproductions of the map also exist.

The Greek Manetho translated the Egyptian king lists in 250 BC. Other direct sources are:

  • the king-list in the temple of Osiris at Abydos
  • the Palermo Stone (a 5th Dynasty document)
  • the Turin Papyrus (a 19th Dynasty document)

After telling us that the total number of years covered by all the king-lists equals 36,525 (which, incidentally, agrees precisely with the period of Cro-Magnon Man), he continues:
"the first series of princes was that of the Auritae (or the Aletae according to Sanchuniathon)"
He calls this the rule of demi-gods. He follows this with a list of the Reigns of the Gods, starting with Ptah and Ra, and ending with Horus.

The list gives the comparable Greek gods/titans, Hephaestus and Helius, and ending again with Horus (a minor Greek deity. King Horus apparently ruled both Egypt and Greece at one point).

Manetho is very careful to point out that the first kings did not rule Egypt, but a foreign country.



  • PTAH
Hephaestus
  • RA
Helius
  • SU
Agathodaemon
  • SEB
Cronus
  • OSIRIS
Osiris
  • SET
Typhon
  • HORUS
---
  • THOTH
---
  • MA
---
  • HORUS
Horus


King Thoth is credited with inventing writing, wrote numerous books, and supposedly ruled on an “Island of Flame to the west”. The Book of the Dead contains some of his writing. The old Egyptian word for Cronos is “Seb”, which later became called Repha.

This name appears in the Old Testament (Amos 5:26 and also Acts 7:43) as Rephan or Raiphan.

In Greek myths, Zeus fought against Cronos and defeated the titans by throwing a ball of fire out of the sky. It burnt the land and boiled the sea. Upon Cronos defeat, Zeus imprisoned him at the bottom of the Ocean in Tartaros. According to Homer in 850 BC, Tartaros was located west of Gibraltar, under the Atlantic.

Plato describes the Atlanteans as being noble in the beginning, but becoming greedy, materialistic and warlike. Cronos had introduced law, cities and agriculture to the land. Zeus was Cronos’ son and was hidden on the Island of Crete, and eventually grew up to defeat him. He fought his father for ten years before being given “large bolts of lightning” that could shake the land itself and destroy whole cities.

According to Plato, the Atlanteans had their god-like appearances from Poseidon, who fell in love with Cleito, and built her a palace in Atlantis on a hill.

They had 5 sets of twins, for which the eldest was called Atlas, and thus the name of the island/continent.


THE BIBLICAL ATLANTIS
And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose...

There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughter of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men (heroes) which were of old, men of renown.
(Genesis 6:1-2,4)
After which man grows extremely wicked and is eventually destroyed by a flood.

The account in the Book of Enoch mentions the earth tilting on its axis during which the earth "labours and is violently shaken." (I Enoch LXIV. 1-3) Two of the most surprising (and mistranslated) verses in the Old Testament probably concerns Atlantis.

The passage is found in the Book of Job, and in the respected King James version reads like this:
Dead things are formed from under the waters, and the inhabitants thereof. Hell is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering. (Job 26:5-6)
The very first word in the above passage is the Hebrew word Rephaim, a reference to the descendants of Repha.

In other words, this is a direct reference to the sons of King Cronos - the famed Titans of Greek mythology. And the Hebrew verb translated "formed" should have been translated "tremble" or "writhe".

What a change this makes! In our modern terms it would now read:
The Titans tremble beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof. Hell is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering. (Job 26:5-6)
Dr. James Moffett (1922) of Oxford University is almost poetic in his translation:
Before him the primaeval giants writhe, under the ocean in their prison; the underworld lies open to his eyes, the nether regions are unveiled. (Job 26:5-6)


EINSTEIN’S ATLANTIS

Albert Einstein also studied Atlantis during the early 1950s, but died in 1955. He was interested in finding solid "geological and paleontological facts” that supported if and where Atlantis had been. His research was done as collaboration with Charles Hapgood.

Einstein wrote the forward for Hapgood’s book “EARTH'S SHIFTING CRUST: A KEY TO SOME BASIC PROBLEMS OF EARTH SCIENCE” (published in 1958 by Pantheon Books, New York).



INDIA’S ATLANTIS

In Hindu legends an island of gods was destroyed during a war between the gods and the Asuras (giant people). Which is very similar to the Greek myth of the gods Vs the Titans.

Vishnu Purana (2000 B.C.), a Sanskrit text, speaks of Atala, the "White Island," which speaks of its geographically location, which when translated is roughly 24-28 degrees North latitude. There is no longitude translation.

Mahabharata tells of a horrendous war that sunk Atala. It is also called the White Island in this text. It describes it as an "island of great splendour" in the western ocean.

It is also describes Tripura, a circular shaped capital city, which was destroyed by being “burnt until it sank into the ocean”.



THE CRO-MAGNON MAN’S ATLANTIS

35000 BC was the appearance of the first Cro-Magnon man (larger brained, uses tools) in western Africa and western Europe.

There are 4 stages of increasingly more intelligent Cro-Magnon peoples appearing in western/northern Africa, and fanning out from that location. Anthropologists also find 4 stages of remains/tools in the Azores and other Atlantic islands. One of the ways of determining intelligence is by measuring the brain size in c.c. The largest Cro-Magnon skull contained 1743 c.c. These first stages of Cro-Magnon are sometimes called “Paleo-Atlantic”.

The cave art in the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountains in France/Spain are Cro-Magnon. When the art was first discovered many believed it was a hoax. Some of the art depicts them wearing tailored clothes and even hats and that they were clean-shaven in many cases. Bone needles and obsidian razors were found, suggesting an advanced culture. Notations scratched on bones record lunar cycles and astrology.

Cro-Magnon was also the first to farm, have advanced musical instruments and build houses. (approx. 15,000 BC.)

The last stage was the largest, occurring around 10,000 BC, and introduced the most modern cro-magnon’s which would later become the basis of modern mankind.

The stages and their locations suggest that they may have been people migrating from Atlantis. 10,000 BC is also the end of the last Ice Age, which had a record number of earthquakes according to geologists, various extinctions and geomagnetic disturbances which caused the poles to move.

The melting of the glaciers caused massive flooding.



THE MONOLITHS LEFT BEHIND

The Baalbek Acropolis in Beirut Lebanon contains three huge stone that are 70 x 14 x 12 feet in size.

They weigh approximately 1000 tons each. The quarry was in a distant valley and were moved uphill to their position. A fourth stone, weighing 1400 tons is still in the quarry. The building was never finished and the Romans later built a temple on top of it.

It was built around 10,000 to 12,000 BC.

The Sphinx is suggested by geologists to have been built around 10,500 BC, by non-Egyptians.

The reasoning is that the Sphinx/Lion is not an important part of Egyptian mythology (but is commonly found in Greek mythology). It has been covered by sand for most of its history until it was excavated in the early 1900s. Horizontal lines on the Sphinx are the result of water erosion, possibly a flood. Egyptologists disagree, despite geological evidence to the contrary.

The head of the Sphinx is also dated differently, has no horizontal erosion, and is disproportionate to the body, suggesting that since its lower torso was under sand, that a Pharaoh had the original lion’s head carved down so that it would look like him.

The Great Pyramid of Gizeh, the largest, oldest and most perfect one (it is astrologically aligned like a compass) does not actually contain any human remains. Neither do any of the other ‘less perfect’ pyramids, which were poorly constructed in contrast.

All the human remains that have been found are in the Valley of the Kings. There is a debate going on currently about whether the pyramids were really temples and palaces (much like the pyramids of the Mayans). Gizeh is also interesting because it is the only one without any inscriptions (with the exceptions of later writings that was written long after it was built). A variation in the mythology, says that the Age of the Gods which ended around 10,000 BC. It was ended because of a flood.

Before the Arabs stole the outer casing stones of the pyramid, legends and records tell that there were water erosion marks halfway up the pyramid (about 400 feet above the Nile). This would definitely go over the top of the entire Sphinx.

When the Great Pyramid was first opened, they found halfway down inside a crustation of salt/minerals over an inch thick. The salt/minerals is consistent with that found in seawater. The other two pyramids also had salt. The smallest of the three was completely submerged under the water and likewise was filled with salt.

The three pyramids are supposedly astronomically aligned with the constellation of Orion’s belt (or Osiris).Osiris is the Egyptian equivalent of Christ.

The explorer/engineer Arthur Posnansky was the first European to explore it and dated its building approximately 15,000 BC. The city is a port city, complete with stone piers and wharfs. The surrounding area is covered with millions of sea-shells and fossilized sea flora.

An inland sea, Lake Titicaca, 15 miles from the city (and 12,400 feet above sea level), contains oceanic creatures such as sharks, telling that the ocean had not only once reached this height, but sharks and other ocean creatures have continued to live there.

The port itself has numerous large carved stones, weighing between 100 and 200 tons. The largest is 440 tons. The rocks however have been knocked off their foundations, suggesting a huge earthquake. Some of the rocks are held together by huge rivets of copper and silver which were poured into place. (A similar technique was used in Egypt’s Elephantine Island in the middle of the Nile.)

Also of interesting note, geologists have determined that many of the blocks came from quarries 200 miles away.

The docks themselves are large enough to comfortably hold hundreds of large ships. Excavations of the city show that it once held a population of 30,000 to 40,000+. The Acapana Pyramid in the city is a step pyramid, aligned like a perfect compass, and had in-door plumbing

A 10-ton gateway to the temple nearby was carved from a single rock and has elephants and toxodons carved into it. The toxodon is a large grazing creature that resembles a hippo with a longer neck. Both it and the south american elephant (Cuverionius) have been extinct since 11,000 to 12,000 BC. The images of the elephant and toxodon are commonly found in the city, ranging from pottery to textiles. The large statues of ‘deities’ found in the temple have similar themes to India, Egypt and Greece.

(Two of them very strongly resemble Zeus and Poseidon. The ‘Zeus’ has a beard, a straight nose and rays of lightning around his forehead. The ‘Poseidon’ more closely resembles the Mesopotamian deity called Oannes -image left - who is depicted with carved fish scales/heads covering his legs.)

All of the ruins are covered with a layer of lime deposits, showing that it had once been underwater. Much of the ruins is also buried beneath a layer of silt sediments, showing it was under the sea for a fair amount of time. Professor Posnansky immediately thought of the Biblical flood, and thus searched for ways to date it (carbon dating was not around before 1945 when he finally published his book about the city).

He determined the date by using the compass in the temple, which was slightly off, and determining what the constellations would have been like thousands of years ago (archeo-astronomy) finally came up with an approximate date of 15,000 BC. Other professors and astronomers have verified the accuracy of his conclusions.

Carbon dating indicates that the city was later re-inhabited around 200 A.D., and that the figures already present in the city became to be revered as gods. Carbon dating for the older rocks have numbers that vastly differs due to volcanic activity in the area during the 10,000 to 15,000 BC period.

The Inca capital of Cusco, Peru is the home of the Sacsahuaman ruins. Most of the stones are 2 to 3 tons, but the bulk of the area is stones weighing about 100 tons.

Despite the complex cutting, the stones are cut so perfectly and fit together so perfectly that not even a razor blade can be slid between their cracks. The rocks would have to be rolled and carved on every side to perfection before being laid, and if there was a single imperfection it would not fit.

Placing a 100 ton rock and then having to take it back out to fix is near impossible. Modern engineering and laser technology would still have headaches and inaccuracy. The ruins pre-date the Inca city which was built around it.

Lixus (Morocco, North Africa) also has 32-sided rocks inside its earthquake proof walls and incorporates stones that are 100+ tons.



Other Ruins/Monoliths:

  • Malta Island, megalithic ruins with "ruts" going into the sea
  • Various Aegean Island underwater ruins (Mediterranean Sea)
  • The Maldive Island underwater ruins (Indian Ocean)
  • The Bahamas, underwater ruins (Atlantic Ocean)
  • Carnac menhirs in Brittany running into the Atlantic Ocean
  • Stone Henge, England



THE OCEANOGRAPHIC ATLANTIS

Due to the carbon dating of ocean sediments we can conclude that the continents were originally attached.

Most of the continental plates are made from silicon-aluminum, but the area where Atlantis was (according to samples from the sea floor) is also made of silicon-magnesium, which is both highly unstable and heavy. Magnesium is also highly combustible and one of the few metals that can burn underwater.

Geologists have suggested that Atlantis has frequently rose and sunk numerous times in the last 3 million years (the Pleistocene Epoch, which ended circa 10,000 BC).

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is one of the most active underwater volcanic areas in the world.

He was actually an opponent of Atlantis, but in spite of himself ended up mapping much of the sea floor around where Atlantis supposedly was and found that the ocean floor had mountainous areas and ‘beaches’ in the areas, and the same shape, as the 1665 map by Athanasius Kircher.

Ewing cautiously, and trying not to be hypocritical of his previous stances, suggested that Atlantis may well have existed as a continent.

The 1949 expedition determined the ages of the sandy beaches. One group of older sand dates 225,000-325,000 years ago, while a 2nd newer batch of sand dates 20,000 to 100,000 years ago. This suggests that Atlantis has rose and sunk at least twice before. The time frames are the same as the last two ice ages.

The pear shaped area of Atlantis would be roughly the size of Spain when fully uncovered.

Samples taken from the Mid-Atlantic ridge have found fossils of small lake animals (diatoms), fresh water creatures, in addition to fossils of land plants.

There are six terrace levels of beaches, suggesting that Atlantis changed its shape and size at least six times, becoming smaller and smaller until it disappeared quite suddenly. The shrinking island could have resulted in an exodus of people to land that was more stable.

Even the United States Navy once searched for Atlantis, believing the oceanography could be useful for nuclear submarines operating near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.


 THE LINGUISTIC ATLANTIS

Berber-Ibero-Basque 
It has been suggested by linguistics that a nomadic Cro-Magnon society existed all the way from Morocco to the British Isles (which explains Stone Henge, similar sites in France, the caves near Basque, and Lixus).

Both anthropologists and linguists agree that Basque is descended from a Cro-Magnon language.


Interesting notes: The Basque word for knife means “stone that cuts” and the word for ceiling means “top of cavern”. Basque is also a mystery in terms of its alien styles of vocabulary, syntax and grammatical structure. While the meanings and definitions of words are considered to be primitive, the actual syntax is extremely complex and orderly.


Both the Romans and Carthaginians recorded that Basque was originally very widespread.

Berber left behind the Guanches of the Canary Islands, and Basque their unique European language.

Prof. Johannes Friedrich, the leading linguist and expert on Berber claims the language has not changed in almost 2000 years. Its complexity assures that.

The extinct Iberian language (found only on tablets) is related to modern Basque, and is suggested to be either an earlier version of Basque, or a language spoken by one of the earlier stages of Cro-Magnon man.

Welsh, Erse and Gaelic use the same complicated syntax that Basque does. The people living in the British Isles used that language long before the Kelts arrived in 1800 BC. Welsh is peculiar in that it adopted Keltic words into its vocabulary, but maintained the syntax. It is suggested that Pre-Keltic Welsh was identical to Basque.

The Mayas continue to this day to speak their language, and to the surprise of a Basque missionary during the 1500s come to convert them, found that they spoke almost exactly the same language, with a slight difference in pronunciation.



THE GEOLOGISTS’ ATLANTIS

Over 200 species of animals became extinct between 10,000 and 20,000 BC. The period is known as the Pleistocene Extinction.

Catastrophism vs uniformitarianism, or gradualism (three theories that get various people arguing)... while all three are actually active in nature. It is possible that evolution could not cope with the vast changes over a period of several thousand years, or they could have been wiped out all at once.

One of the indicators of a catastrophe at the end of the Pleistocene 12,000 years ago is the huge numbers of frozen carcasses in both eastern and western hemispheres, North America and Russia/Siberia.

Back in middle 1940s Dr. Frank C. Hibben, Prof. of Archeology at the University of New Mexico mounted an expedition to Alaska to look for human remains.

Instead he found gold, and massive amounts of mammoth, mastodon, several kinds of bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions. All trapped in ice and he ended up with their rotting carcasses.

The ice sheet they were trapped in stretched for miles, with very little rock except below the thick layer of ice. He had concluded that an enormous tidal wave (a tsunami) had wiped out the creatures, along with trees and peat moss, and that they had floated in the ice dead until the ice itself had frozen completely. The ice had frozen relatively quickly.

Other non-arctic creatures were affected: giant tortoises living in the Caribbean Sea, the giant sloth, the sabre-toothed tiger, the glyptodont and toxodon. These were all tropical animals. With the exception of the tortoise, they all live on the ground however and need to breath air.

Others: Woolly rhinoceros, giant armadillos, giant beavers, giant jaguars, ground sloths, antelopes, American camels, Asian elephants (Indian elephants came from the sub-continent of India).

All died at roughly the same time, 10,000 BC. They were not slowly killed off. They were quickly killed off. It is also important to note that people should not confuse this with the extinction of the dinosaurs, which happened millions of years ago in contrast.

Pleistocene geologist William R. Farrand of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, who is opposed to catastrophism in any form, states:
"Sudden death is indicated by the robust condition of the animals and their full stomachs... the animals were robust and healthy when they died".
(Farrand, 1961)
It has been estimated that some ten million animals lay buried along the rivers of northern Siberia.

Thousands of tusks formed a massive ivory trade for the master carvers of China, all from the remains of the frozen mammoths and mastodons of Siberia. The famous Beresovka mammoth first drew attention to the preserving properties of being quick-frozen when buttercups were found in its mouth.


TODAY’S ATLANTIS

Disneyification is one of the ways that has destroyed/created the mythology around Atlantis.

Due to this mythification most people assume that Atlantis does not exist. Its just another myth like everything else the Greeks had. (Unless you count the theory of the atom, that the world is a sphere, and other items of Greek philosophy which has been later proved accurate…)

Except that the Greeks are not the only ones with such a “myth”. Indeed every single religion on Earth has some form of Great Flood story, which suggests that there really was some form of major disaster around the time that the glaciers melted.

And if this semi-gradual flooding of Atlantis was what caused the four major exoduses of Cro-Magnon man, then we can assume that Atlantis was the birthplace of much of modern mankind.

The origin of humans and much of pre-historical culture is something that plagues every person at some point in our lifetime: Where did we come from? It is as fundamental as our search for religion and meaning in life.

Dr Ewing who was opposed to Atlantis searched for it despite the fact that he believed it did not exist. His oceanography and fossil finds however conclude that it not only existed, but also has actually sunk at least twice (due to the previous two ice ages).

If we take for granted that Atlantis did exist, and that humanity originated from there, what does that mean to us?

It throws a wrench into the mechanics of various religions for starters by questioning their myths but at the same time supporting the Great Flood myth.

It changes how we look at other ancient societies, knowing that they had possibly originated from Atlantis and then somehow lost or forgot their technology. There was a loss of cultural and technological memory.

It suggests that we may have had a higher state of technology 14,000 years ago and that we started over roughly 12,000 years ago. And judging by the timeline of Cro-Magnon man (36,000 years), it may take us another 20,000 years to reach the level of technology that was used to build the pyramids.

It questions what around is actually permanent. Metals melt and rust away and can be salvaged and turned into other things. Glass breaks easily. Plastics slowly degrade. Bones, if not fossilized, also disappear. Wood rots. Stone is one of the few things that last, especially if they are too big to be moved by less technological cultures.

What have we built in the last 2000 years that is actually permanent? The Great Wall of China is brick and will erode and fall apart. Steel buildings will rust away into nothing. The Hoover Dam (one of the few things that can be seen from space) is perhaps one of the few buildings that will actually still be here in 10,000 years.

Fossils stay on the basis of becoming covered by sedimentary rock. The fossilized fresh water fish and land plants found in the Mid-Atlantis ridge for example. Actual bones are a rare find.

The Greek and Indian myths suggesting a Great War which burned the land and boiled the sea seems almost Apocalyptic, like a nuclear war. Zeus’s lightning bolts sounds almost like nuclear missiles. We already know that a nuclear blast can destroy the memory of what was a city, leaving behind only a shell.


The capital of Atlantis as described by Plato.


The capital of Atlantis as described by Plato.

The idea of a lost, but highly advanced civilization has captured the interest of people for centuries. Perhaps the most compelling of these tales is the story of Atlantis. The story appears again and again in books, television shows and movies. Where did the story originate and is any of it true?

Plato's Atlantis

The story of the lost continent of Atlantis starts in 355 B.C. with the Greek philosopher Plato. Plato had planned to write a trilogy of books discussing the nature of man, the creation of the world, and the story of Atlantis, as well as other subjects. Only the first book was ever completed. The second book was abandoned part way through, and the final book was never even started.

Plato used dialogues to express his ideas. In this type of writing, the author's thoughts are explored in a series of arguments and debates between various characters in the story. Plato often used real people in his dialogues, such as his teacher, Socrates, but the words he gave them were his own.

In Plato's book, Timaeus, a character named Kritias tells an account of Atlantis that has been in his family for generations. According to the character, the story was originally told to his ancestor, Solon, by a priest during Solon's visit to Egypt.


There had been a powerful empire located to the west of the "Pillars of Hercules" (what we now call the Straight of Gibraltar) on an island in the Atlantic Ocean. The nation there had been established by Poseidon, the God of the Sea. Poseidon fathered five sets of twins on the island. The firstborn, Atlas, had the continent and the surrounding ocean named for him. Poseidon divided the land into ten sections, each to be ruled by a son, or his heirs.

The capital city of Atlantis was a marvel of architecture and engineering. The city was composed of a series of concentric walls and canals. At the very center was a hill, and on top of the hill a temple to Poseidon. Inside was a gold statue of the God of the Sea showing him driving six winged horses.

About 9000 years before the time of Plato, after the people of Atlantis became corrupt and greedy, the gods decided to destroy them. A violent earthquake shook the land, giant waves rolled over the shores, and the island sank into the sea, never to be seen again.

So, is the story of Atlantis just a fable used by Plato to make a point? Or is there some reason to think he was referring to a real place? Well, at numerous points in the dialogues, Plato's characters refer to the story of Atlantis as "genuine history" and it being within "the realm of fact." Plato also seems to put into the story a lot of detail about Atlantis that would be unnecessary if he had intended to use it only as a literary device.

On the other hand according to the writings of the historian Strabo, Plato's student Aristotle remarked that Atlantis was simply created by Plato to illustrate a point. Unfortunately, Aristotle's writings on this subject, which might have cleared the mystery up, have been lost eons ago.

Location, Location, Location

If we make the assumption that Atlantis was a real place, it seems logical that it could be found west of the Straight of Gibraltar near the Azores Islands. In 1882 a man named Ignatius Donnelly published a book titled Atlantis, the Antediluvian World. Donnelly, an American politician, had come to the belief that Plato's story represented actual historical fact. He located Atlantis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, suggesting the Azores Islands represented what remained of the highest mountain peaks. Donnelly said he had studied zoology and geology and had come to the conclusion that civilization itself had begun with the Atlantians and had spread out throughout the world as the Atlantians established colonies in places like ancient Egypt and Peru. Donnelly's book became a world-wide best seller, but researchers could not take Donnelly's theories seriously as he offered no proof for his ideas.

As time went on it became obvious that Donnelly's theories were faulty. Modern scientific surveys of the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean shows it is covered with a blanket of sediment that must have taken millions of years to accumulate. There is no sign of a sunken island continent.

Are Pyramids a Clue?

Lewis Spence, a Scottish writer, published several books on Atlantis in the early 20th century. He was fascinated by the pyramids constructed by ancient races in different parts of the globe. Spence wondered if the creation of pyramids in diverse areas such as South America and Egypt indicated that these places had all been colonies of the Atlantis and if the Atlantians were the original pyramid makers. While the idea is interesting, most historians today believe the trend toward building pyramids occurred independently in different locations.

Are there any other candidates for the location of Atlantis? People have made cases for places as diverse as Switzerland, in the middle of Europe, and New Zealand, in the Pacific Ocean. The explorer, Percy Fawcett, thought that it might be located in Brazil.

Atlantis in Spain?

Recently a research team led by Professor Richard Freund at the University of Hartford, has claimed that they have found evidence that the city may be buried not under the ocean, but along the coast of Spain in marshlands of the Doñana National Park. Geological studies have shown that at one time this marsh was a huge bay connected to the Atlantic Ocean. The team, using radar technology, digital mapping and satellite imagery believes that they can see signs of a ringed city that once occupied the bay with canals similar to those described by Plato. There is evidence that a number of tsunamis have swept this area over the centuries and Freund thinks that it is one of these destroyed the city. After the disaster survivors may have moved inland and created a number of what Freund thinks are memorial sites to Atlantis.

Other scientists that have explored the area do not agree with Freund's conclusion, though they admit that a city by the name of Tartessos occupied the area around the 4th century B.C.. Freund believes that Tartessos and Atlantis may just be different names for the same city. As far back as the 1920's historian Adolf Schulten had suggested that Plato had used the real city of Tartessos as the source for his Atlantis legend.

The strongest evidence for a real Atlantis, however, is not in Spain, but closer to Plato's home in Greece. This idea started with K.T. Frost, a professor of history at the Queen's University in Belfast. Later, Spyridon Marinatos, an archaeologist, and A.G. Galanopoulos, a seismologist, added evidence to Frost's ideas.

The Minoan Connection

Frost suggested that instead of being west of the Pillars of Hercules, Atlantis was east. He also thought that the catastrophic end of the island had come not 9000 years before Plato's time, but only 900. If this was true, the land of Atlantis might already be a well-known place even in Plato's time: the island of Crete.

Crete is now a part of modern Greece and lies just south of Athens across part of the Mediterranean Sea. Before 1500 B.C. it was the seat of the Minoan Empire. The Minoans dominated the eastern Mediterranean with a powerful navy and probably extracted tribute from other surrounding nations. Archaeological excavations have shown that Minoan Crete was probably one of the most sophisticated cultures of its time. It had splendid architecture and art. A code of laws gave women equal legal status to men. Agriculture was highly developed and an extensive irrigation system existed.

Then, seemingly in a blink of an eye, the Minoan Civilization disappeared. Geological studies have shown that on an island we now know as Santorinas, located just eighty miles to the north of Crete, a disaster occurred that was very capable of toppling the Minoan state.

Santorinas today is a lush Mediterranean paradise consisting of several islands in a ring shape. Twenty-five hundred years ago, though, it was a single large island with a volcano in the center. The volcano blew itself apart in a massive explosion around 1500 B.C.

To understand the effect of such an explosion, scientists have compared it with the most powerful volcanic explosion in historic times. This occurred on the Island of Krakatoa in 1883. There a giant wave, or tsunami, 120 feet high raced across the sea and hit neighboring islands, killing 36,000 people. Ash thrown up into the air blackened the skies for three days. The sound of the explosion was heard as far away as 3,000 miles.

The tsunami that hit Crete must have traveled inland for over half a mile, destroying any coastal towns or cities. The great Minoan fleet of ships were all sunk in a few seconds. Overnight the powerful Minoan Empire was crushed and Crete changed to a political backwater. One can hardly imagine a catastrophe more like Plato's description of Atlantis' fate than the destruction of Crete.

Many of the details of the Atlantis story fit with what is now known about Crete. Women had a relatively high political status, both cultures were peaceful, and both enjoyed the unusual sport of ritualistic "bull leaping" (where an unarmed man wrestled and jumped over a bull).

If the fall of the Minoans is the story of Atlantis, how did Plato get the location and time wrong? Galanopoulos suggested there was a mistake during translation of some of the figures from Egyptian to Greek and an extra zero added. This would mean 900 years ago became 9000, and the distance from Egypt to "Atlantis" went from 250 miles to 2,500. If this is true, Plato (knowing the layout of the Mediterranean Sea) would have been forced to assume the location of the island continent to be squarely in the Atlantic Ocean.

Atlantis Continent -The Minoan Connection









Atlantis Continent-The Minoan Connection
Frost suggested that instead of being west of the Pillars of Hercules, Atlantis continent was east. He also thought that the catastrophic end of the island had come not 9000 years before Plato's time, but only 900. If this was true, the land of Atlantis continent might already be a well-known place even in Plato's time: the island of Crete.
Are Pyramids a Clue?
Lewis Spence, a Scottish writer, published several books on Atlantis in the early 20th century. Spence wondered if the creation of pyramids in diverse areas such as South America and Egypt indicated that these places had all been colonies of the Atlantis Continent and if the Atlantians were the original pyramid makers. While the idea is interesting, most historians today believe the trend toward building pyramids occurred independently in different locations.
Crete is now a part of modern Greece and lies just south of Athens across part of the Mediterranean Sea. The Minoans dominated the eastern Mediterranean with a powerful navy and probably extracted tribute from other surrounding nations. Archaeological excavations have shown that Minoan Crete was probably one of the most sophisticated cultures of its time. It had splendid architecture and art. A code of laws gave women equal legal status to men. Agriculture was highly developed and an extensive irrigation system existed.
Then, seemingly in a blink of an eye, the Minoan Civilization disappeared. Geological studies have shown that on an island we now know as Santorinas, located just ten miles to the north of Crete, a disaster occurred that was very capable of toppling the Minoan state.
Santorinas today is a lush Mediterranean paradise consisting of several islands in a ring shape. To understand the effect of such an explosion, scientists have compared it with the most powerful volcanic explosion in historic times. This occurred on the Island of Krakatoa in 1883. There a giant wave, or tsunami, 120 feet high raced across the sea and hit neighboring islands, killing 36,000 people. The explosion at Santorinas was four times as powerful as Krakatoa.
The tsunami that hit Crete must have traveled inland for over half a mile, destroying any coastal towns or cities. Overnight the powerful Minoan Empire was crushed and Crete changed to a political backwater. One can hardly imagine a catastrophe more like Plato's description of Atlantis' fate than the destruction of Crete.
Many of the details of the Atlantis continent story fit with what is now known about Crete. Women had a relatively high political status, both cultures were peaceful, and both enjoyed the unusual sport of ritualistic bullfighting (where an unarmed man wrestled and jumped over a bull).
If the fall of the Minoans is the story of Atlantis, how did Plato get the location and time wrong? Not everyone accepts the Minoan Crete theory of the story of Atlantis, but until a convincing case can be made for some other place, it, perhaps, remains science's best guess.
Atlantis Continent

Ancient Texts and Writing on Atlantis









Ancient Texts and Writing on Atlantis
In Meso- and South-America, Aztecs and Mayans are said to have mentioned Atlantis in "Chilam Balam", "Dresden Codex", "Popul Vuh", "Codex Cortesianus", and "Troano Manuscript". Then the sky would fall, it would fall down upon the earth, when the four gods, the four Bacabs, were set up, who brought about the destruction of the world." According to the former, the fourth of these worlds, or "Suns," was destroyed by a great flood of water (Seler 1923, p. 40).
The Mayan "Popol Vuh" ("The Collection of Written Leaves") says: "Over a universe wrapped in the gloom of a dense and primeval night passed the god Hurakan, the mighty wind. He called out "earth," and the solid land appeared. The chief gods took counsel; they were Hurakan, Gucumatz, the serpent covered with green feathers, and Xpiyacoc and Xmucane, the mother and father gods. To supply the deficiency the divine beings resolved to create mannikins carved out of wood. But these soon incurred the displeasure of the gods, who, irritated by their lack of reverence, resolved to destroy them. Then by the will of Hurakan, the Heart of Heaven, the waters were swollen, and a great flood came upon the mannikins of wood. There was heard a great noise above their heads, as if produced by fire. Then were men seen running, pushing each other, filled with despair; they wished to climb upon their houses, and the houses, tumbling down, fell to the ground; they wished to climb upon the trees, and the trees shook them off; they wished to enter into the grottoes (eaves), and the grottoes closed themselves before them. . . Water and fire contributed to the universal ruin at the time of the last great cataclysm which preceded the fourth creation."
Also the "Popol Vuh", speaking of the first home of the Guatemalan race, says that "black and white men together" lived in this happy land "in great peace," speaking "one language."In "The Myths of Mexico and Peru" (1913), Lewis Spence says: "Ere the earth was quite recovered from the wrathful flood which had descended upon it there lived a being orgulous and full of pride, called Vukub-Cakix (Seventimes-the-colour-of-fire-the Kiche name for the great macaw bird). In short, it is evident that he was a sun-and-moon god of prehistoric times. He boasted dreadfully, and his conduct so irritated the other gods that they resolved upon his destruction. His two sons, Zipacna and Cabrakan (Cockspur or Earth-heaper, and Earthquake), were earthquake-gods of the type of the Jotuns of Scandinavian myth or the Titans of Greek legend. These also were prideful and arrogant, and to cause their downfall the gods despatched the heavenly twins Hun-Apu and Xbalanque to earth, with instructions to chastise the trio.
The Aztec book, "Codex Chimalpopoca", translated by Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, says:
"This is the sun called Nahui-atl, '4 water.' Now the water was tranquil for forty years, plus twelve, and men lived for the third and fourth times. Even the mountains sunk into the water, and the water remained tranquil for fifty-two springs."
In Europe, Holland, the Frysian book - also one of the oldest books ever found - "Oera Linda Book". Qoute: "During the whole summer, the sun hid itself behind the clouds, as if unwilling to shine upon earth. In the middle of quietude, the earth began to quake as if it was dying. The mountains opened up to vomit forth fire and flames. Some of them sunk under the earth while in other places moutains rose out of plains. Many people were swallowed up by the earth, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the waters."
"Younger Edda" (also known as "Prose Edda" or "Snorri's Edda") is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains mythological stories. According to "Gylfaginning", from "The Prose Edda" of Snorri Sturlson, translated by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur in 1916, "King Gylfi ruled the land that men now call Sweden".
"King Gylfi was a wise man and skilled in magic; he was much troubled that the Æsir-people were so cunning that all things went according to their will. There dwelt the gods and their kindred; and many tidings and tales of it have come to pass both on earth and aloft."
In the Introduction of the book, one can read: "The beginning of the book is a summary of the Biblical story of the Creation and Deluge, followed by a rationalized account of the rise of the ancient pagan faith, according to which the old gods appear, not as deities, but as men."
In Greece, I will mention Plato, Plutarch, and Herodotus for now, even though Diodorus, Aristotle, Marcellus, Proclus, Crantor, Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus have mentioned Atlantis in a way or another. We should also mention Solon, the great law-giver of Athens 600 years before the Christian era. In his book, "The Life of Solon", Plutarch (45 - 120 AD) says:
Now Solon, having begun the great work in verse, the history or fable of the Atlantic Island, which he had learned from the wise men in Sais, and thought convenient for the Athenians to know, abandoned it; not, as Plato says, by reason of want or time, but because of his age, and being discouraged at the greatness of the task; for that he had leisure enough, such verses testify, as
Plato, willing to improve the story of the Atlantic Island, as if it were a fair estate that wanted an heir and came with some title to him, formed, indeed, stately entrances, noble enclosures, large courts, such as never yet introduced any story, fable, or poetic fiction; but beginning it late, ended his life before his work."
Plato (427 - 347 BC) begins his book:
"Critias. Plato continues:
You can read the full work of Plato's "Dialogues" here.
As one deducts, Atlantis was sunk by the will of Gods, through flood(s) and earthquake(s). Ignatius Donnelly, in his book, "Atlantis, the Antediluvian World" (1884), mentions an old sacred book of Babylon. "Cronos (Ea) appeared to him in his sleep, and announced that on the fifteenth of the month of Daisios (the Assyrian month Sivan--a little before the summer solstice) all men should perish by a flood. The same story appears in Mesopotamia.
"There was a time when Enlil, the most powerful of the Gods, was displeased with mankind and decided to send a flood that no living being could survive. But the verdict seemed to harsh to Ea, a fellow-god, who forewarned his favorite mortal, Utnapishtin, in a dream. (according to "Cradle of Civilization", Time Life Books) The story of the flood exists in all Near Eastern Cultures, as for Hebrews, they are mentioned as "Hibru" existing among other populations before they have formed their own state.
Conclusion: Since all these old civilizations mentioned Atlantis in a form or another, or the destruction of an Atlantis-like island and a big flood, it's hard to imagine that they've all been lying or re-telling a story told to them. People in those times were pretty interested in their stories and tradition was everything. The survivors of the destruction scattered and landed on the closest areas from the sunk island. II. Is Atlantis Lost Indeed?
Herodotus, in his "History", Vol.1, has a few passages about "Atlantis".
"184. From the Garmantians at a distance again of ten days' journey there is another hill of salt and spring of water, and men dwell round it called Atarantians, who alone of all men about whom we know are nameless; for while all taken together have the name Atarantians, each separate man of them has no name given to him. Usually Herodotus, when referring to the countries or cities, 'outside the Pillars of Heracles' usually talks about the western coasts of Africa and Europe that open to the Atlantic Ocean. Even though he was Roman, he spoke Greek so perfectly that he was called 'honey-tongued'. In his work, Varia Historia (Various History), he talks also about natural wonders and strange local customs. "If one believes Theopompus, Midas, king de the Phrygians, discussed one day with Silene (Silene was sun of a nymph, and for this reason, though it was by his birth of an order lower than the gods, as them, nevertheless, he was immortal, and extremely above the condition of the men). After having discussed various things, Silene called to Midas:
It produces very large animals and men of a size twice higher, which are not those of our climates: as their life it is not limited to the same space of time as ours; they live twice longer. All die in the war, not by iron (iron cannot do anything to them), but struck by stone blows or blows of stick. What Silene added is much more astonishing still: 'In this country, he says, the men that one distinguishes by the name of Meropes, are Masters of several large cities: on the borders of the territory which they live in is a place called Anoste (without return), which resembles a pit, and is neither enlightened, nor dark; the air which forms its atmosphere, is mixed with an obscure red. Two rivers run in the surroundings; the river Pleasure, and the river Sorrow, thus they are named: their edges are covered with trees, the height of a large plane tree. Maps
The first map is Benincasa map (1482), one of the maps studied by Columbus when he set sail for the Indies. At the map's origin seemed to have been a couple of old maps. Right below, Ptolemy's map, published in Strasbourg in 1513. Below you have Athanasius Kircher's map (1669). Kircher was a Jesuit German priest, who lived between 1602-1680. He published "Mundus Subterraneus", a book containing a map of Atlantis according to ancient Egyptian maps. Some claim that Kircher's island looks like the Antarctica on Piri Reis' map, and like nowadays Antarctica without the ice. The inscriptions on the continents say: "America, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantis, Africa, Spain". In the upper corner: "Site of Atlantis, now beneath the sea, according to the beliefs of the Egyptians and the description of Plato".
Being based on Egyptian maps, in Kircher's map north becomes south. The question being asked by the Atlantis believers is if it is more likely to look for Atlantis on an island that moved thousands of kilometers south to reach Antarctica's position now and mostly ignore Plato's story, or to search for it in the Azores, where the tops of the volcanoes are still on land.

The Atlantis We Are Looking For










The Atlantis We Are Looking For
When one mentions the lost continent of Atlantis, one thinks of Plato's "Dialogues".
However, Plato's work was not the only one to point to a 'lost continent'. There are legends of other old civilizations that mention lost worlds which disappeared into the waters, as a result of volcanic eruptions, floods, and earthquakes. Today people fight over the existence of Atlantis continent, but they all take into account one story, that is Plato's. While we do expose the theories and the ongoing research on this sunk land, we try to bind together everything we have to create The Atlantis, the base for "Dialogues", the base for Kircher's and Piri Reis's map, the course of the ancient legends. The result might not be called "Atlantis", but a variation of it. There are so many researchers that claim to have discovered "the lost continent", that any new found land can be a possible Atlantis. Some even claim that Atlantis has already been found in the Aegean Sea, on the Island of Santorini. Maybe Atlantis is some kind of faerie tale, but there must be something lost out there, even if its name is not Atlantis, even if it is not in the Atlantic Ocean.
What is Atlantis after all?
The old Greek scholars cast a completely different light on the story. After years and years of believing just because funny evidence claims the existence of Plato's Atlantis, I reached a point where I ask myself: But did it really exist, as Plato said?
I pointed my finger to the Azores, I pointed it to Santorini, and now I am pointing to nothing, because I don't know what to say. I might as well reach the conclusion that Atlantis continent is, after all, Plato's story, based on some real events, but adapted.