Ancient Texts and Writing on Atlantis
In Meso- and South-America, Aztecs and Mayans are said to have mentioned Atlantis in "Chilam Balam", "Dresden Codex", "Popul Vuh", "Codex Cortesianus", and "Troano Manuscript". Then the sky would fall, it would fall down upon the earth, when the four gods, the four Bacabs, were set up, who brought about the destruction of the world." According to the former, the fourth of these worlds, or "Suns," was destroyed by a great flood of water (Seler 1923, p. 40).
The Mayan "Popol Vuh" ("The Collection of Written Leaves") says: "Over a universe wrapped in the gloom of a dense and primeval night passed the god Hurakan, the mighty wind. He called out "earth," and the solid land appeared. The chief gods took counsel; they were Hurakan, Gucumatz, the serpent covered with green feathers, and Xpiyacoc and Xmucane, the mother and father gods. To supply the deficiency the divine beings resolved to create mannikins carved out of wood. But these soon incurred the displeasure of the gods, who, irritated by their lack of reverence, resolved to destroy them. Then by the will of Hurakan, the Heart of Heaven, the waters were swollen, and a great flood came upon the mannikins of wood. There was heard a great noise above their heads, as if produced by fire. Then were men seen running, pushing each other, filled with despair; they wished to climb upon their houses, and the houses, tumbling down, fell to the ground; they wished to climb upon the trees, and the trees shook them off; they wished to enter into the grottoes (eaves), and the grottoes closed themselves before them. . . Water and fire contributed to the universal ruin at the time of the last great cataclysm which preceded the fourth creation."
Also the "Popol Vuh", speaking of the first home of the Guatemalan race, says that "black and white men together" lived in this happy land "in great peace," speaking "one language."In "The Myths of Mexico and Peru" (1913), Lewis Spence says: "Ere the earth was quite recovered from the wrathful flood which had descended upon it there lived a being orgulous and full of pride, called Vukub-Cakix (Seventimes-the-colour-of-fire-the Kiche name for the great macaw bird). In short, it is evident that he was a sun-and-moon god of prehistoric times. He boasted dreadfully, and his conduct so irritated the other gods that they resolved upon his destruction. His two sons, Zipacna and Cabrakan (Cockspur or Earth-heaper, and Earthquake), were earthquake-gods of the type of the Jotuns of Scandinavian myth or the Titans of Greek legend. These also were prideful and arrogant, and to cause their downfall the gods despatched the heavenly twins Hun-Apu and Xbalanque to earth, with instructions to chastise the trio.
The Aztec book, "Codex Chimalpopoca", translated by Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, says:
"This is the sun called Nahui-atl, '4 water.' Now the water was tranquil for forty years, plus twelve, and men lived for the third and fourth times. Even the mountains sunk into the water, and the water remained tranquil for fifty-two springs."
In Europe, Holland, the Frysian book - also one of the oldest books ever found - "Oera Linda Book". Qoute: "During the whole summer, the sun hid itself behind the clouds, as if unwilling to shine upon earth. In the middle of quietude, the earth began to quake as if it was dying. The mountains opened up to vomit forth fire and flames. Some of them sunk under the earth while in other places moutains rose out of plains. Many people were swallowed up by the earth, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the waters."
"Younger Edda" (also known as "Prose Edda" or "Snorri's Edda") is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains mythological stories. According to "Gylfaginning", from "The Prose Edda" of Snorri Sturlson, translated by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur in 1916, "King Gylfi ruled the land that men now call Sweden".
"King Gylfi was a wise man and skilled in magic; he was much troubled that the Æsir-people were so cunning that all things went according to their will. There dwelt the gods and their kindred; and many tidings and tales of it have come to pass both on earth and aloft."
In the Introduction of the book, one can read: "The beginning of the book is a summary of the Biblical story of the Creation and Deluge, followed by a rationalized account of the rise of the ancient pagan faith, according to which the old gods appear, not as deities, but as men."
In Greece, I will mention Plato, Plutarch, and Herodotus for now, even though Diodorus, Aristotle, Marcellus, Proclus, Crantor, Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus have mentioned Atlantis in a way or another. We should also mention Solon, the great law-giver of Athens 600 years before the Christian era. In his book, "The Life of Solon", Plutarch (45 - 120 AD) says:
Now Solon, having begun the great work in verse, the history or fable of the Atlantic Island, which he had learned from the wise men in Sais, and thought convenient for the Athenians to know, abandoned it; not, as Plato says, by reason of want or time, but because of his age, and being discouraged at the greatness of the task; for that he had leisure enough, such verses testify, as
Plato, willing to improve the story of the Atlantic Island, as if it were a fair estate that wanted an heir and came with some title to him, formed, indeed, stately entrances, noble enclosures, large courts, such as never yet introduced any story, fable, or poetic fiction; but beginning it late, ended his life before his work."
Plato (427 - 347 BC) begins his book:
"Critias. Plato continues:
You can read the full work of Plato's "Dialogues" here.
As one deducts, Atlantis was sunk by the will of Gods, through flood(s) and earthquake(s). Ignatius Donnelly, in his book, "Atlantis, the Antediluvian World" (1884), mentions an old sacred book of Babylon. "Cronos (Ea) appeared to him in his sleep, and announced that on the fifteenth of the month of Daisios (the Assyrian month Sivan--a little before the summer solstice) all men should perish by a flood. The same story appears in Mesopotamia.
"There was a time when Enlil, the most powerful of the Gods, was displeased with mankind and decided to send a flood that no living being could survive. But the verdict seemed to harsh to Ea, a fellow-god, who forewarned his favorite mortal, Utnapishtin, in a dream. (according to "Cradle of Civilization", Time Life Books) The story of the flood exists in all Near Eastern Cultures, as for Hebrews, they are mentioned as "Hibru" existing among other populations before they have formed their own state.
Conclusion: Since all these old civilizations mentioned Atlantis in a form or another, or the destruction of an Atlantis-like island and a big flood, it's hard to imagine that they've all been lying or re-telling a story told to them. People in those times were pretty interested in their stories and tradition was everything. The survivors of the destruction scattered and landed on the closest areas from the sunk island. II. Is Atlantis Lost Indeed?
Herodotus, in his "History", Vol.1, has a few passages about "Atlantis".
"184. From the Garmantians at a distance again of ten days' journey there is another hill of salt and spring of water, and men dwell round it called Atarantians, who alone of all men about whom we know are nameless; for while all taken together have the name Atarantians, each separate man of them has no name given to him. Usually Herodotus, when referring to the countries or cities, 'outside the Pillars of Heracles' usually talks about the western coasts of Africa and Europe that open to the Atlantic Ocean. Even though he was Roman, he spoke Greek so perfectly that he was called 'honey-tongued'. In his work, Varia Historia (Various History), he talks also about natural wonders and strange local customs. "If one believes Theopompus, Midas, king de the Phrygians, discussed one day with Silene (Silene was sun of a nymph, and for this reason, though it was by his birth of an order lower than the gods, as them, nevertheless, he was immortal, and extremely above the condition of the men). After having discussed various things, Silene called to Midas:
It produces very large animals and men of a size twice higher, which are not those of our climates: as their life it is not limited to the same space of time as ours; they live twice longer. All die in the war, not by iron (iron cannot do anything to them), but struck by stone blows or blows of stick. What Silene added is much more astonishing still: 'In this country, he says, the men that one distinguishes by the name of Meropes, are Masters of several large cities: on the borders of the territory which they live in is a place called Anoste (without return), which resembles a pit, and is neither enlightened, nor dark; the air which forms its atmosphere, is mixed with an obscure red. Two rivers run in the surroundings; the river Pleasure, and the river Sorrow, thus they are named: their edges are covered with trees, the height of a large plane tree. Maps
The first map is Benincasa map (1482), one of the maps studied by Columbus when he set sail for the Indies. At the map's origin seemed to have been a couple of old maps. Right below, Ptolemy's map, published in Strasbourg in 1513. Below you have Athanasius Kircher's map (1669). Kircher was a Jesuit German priest, who lived between 1602-1680. He published "Mundus Subterraneus", a book containing a map of Atlantis according to ancient Egyptian maps. Some claim that Kircher's island looks like the Antarctica on Piri Reis' map, and like nowadays Antarctica without the ice. The inscriptions on the continents say: "America, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantis, Africa, Spain". In the upper corner: "Site of Atlantis, now beneath the sea, according to the beliefs of the Egyptians and the description of Plato".
Being based on Egyptian maps, in Kircher's map north becomes south. The question being asked by the Atlantis believers is if it is more likely to look for Atlantis on an island that moved thousands of kilometers south to reach Antarctica's position now and mostly ignore Plato's story, or to search for it in the Azores, where the tops of the volcanoes are still on land.